Flowtime tDCS Headset uses tDCS to max your brain power, improving your attention,memory, mood and performance.

What is tDCS?

Transcranial direct current electrical stimulation (tDCS) , one of neuromodulation technologies, uses constant weak current to regulate neural activity. Various neuromodulation technologies have been widely used in clinical therapy, among which tDCS is most widely studied and applied due to its operational safety and convenience. In cognitive neuroscience, tDCS has gradually become a tool for regulating cognitive functions. Large study has revealed tDCS can improve perception, attention, memory, creativity, problem solving and decision making.  

History of tDCS

Records from 43-48 A.C.
showed that placing a live torpedo fish induced a strong discharge over scalp that resulted in pain relief in headache (Gebodh et al., 2019).
In 1755,
Charles Le Roy placed wires around the subject’s head and leg to help a blind man restore light (Gebodh et al., 2019).
In the early 19th century,
Giovanni Aldini recommended galvanism for patients with deafness, Amaurosis, 「melancholia」, and「insanity」, reporting good results (Gebodh et al., 2019).
In 1923,
Alessandro Volta recognized that electrical stimuli of varying duration can evoke different physiological effects (Priori, 2003).
In 1956,
Terzuolo and Bullock found in crayfish and lobster experimental preparation that electric fields at 10 mV/cm were strong enough to modulate spontaneous neuronal firing (Terzuolo and Bullock, 1956).
From 1960 to 1998,
tDCS was widely studied in clinical practice,and a large amount of evidence shows that tDCS can improve depression and anxiety (Gebodh et al., 2019)。.
In 2000,
Nitsche et al. demonstrated that tDCS could alter human motor cortex excitability (Nitsche and Paulus, 2000).
In 2005,
Fregni et al. found that tDCS could improve working memory (Fregni et al., 2005).tDCS has been applied increasingly in the last decade to explore the physiological basis of cognitive processes.

How it works?

Precise activation of specific brain area

The target activation sites of are motor cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) which plays an important role in memory, attention, problem solving and decision making.

Facilitate neurons being activated

The transmission of information between neurons is the physiological basis of perception, thinking, and memory. Neurons receive signals and cause changes in membrane potential. When the changes in membrane potential accumulate to a certain level, they emit action potentials. which means the neuron is "activated." tDCS induces a weak electric field in the area below the activation sites, which affects the distribution of charged ions in the brain and causes the membrane potential of neurons to change, making the membrane potential closer to the action potential threshold, that is, tDCS makes the neuron more likely to be activated.

Enhance synaptic plasticity

When you do intellectual tasks such as learning new knowledge, reading advanced papers, playing competitive games, meditation,  establishing a framework to analyze complex problems, the related neural pathways will be activated, during which the signal will be transmitted between neurons through the synapses.The connectivity of a pathway is strengthened by being activated, which is the basis of learning and memory: synaptic plasticity. Studies have shown that applying tDCS when related pathways are activated can promote the plasticity regulation of synapses by regulating neurotransmitters, neurotrophic factors, astrocytes, etc.

Safety

The tDCS technology adopted by Flowtime tDCS headset is safe.  

▪ In multiple studies, more than 1,000 subjects participated in more than 33,200 stimulation sessions, and no serious adverse reactions related to tDCS were found.
▪ Moreover, for long-term users of tDCS, there are no reports of related adverse reactions.
▪ Currently, there are no adverse reports on tDCS in the "MedWatch" database of the US FDA (Food and Drug Administration) safety information and adverse event reporting system. The FDA believes that the use of tDCS has no significant risks.

Frequently asked questions

Who is Flowtime tDCS for?
People over 12 years old, who want to improve their attention, memory and creativity, such as students, engineers, musicians, meditators, etc.
When to use Flowtime tDCS?
The Flowtime tDCS headset is a neuromodulation product based on tDCS technology to improve attention, memory and creativity. The neuromodulation effect of the Flowtime tDCS headset is "functionally targeted," which means it promotes the activation of activated neural circuits (neural circuits where neurons that receive massive synaptic inputs and are so depolarized that they occasionally (or often) generate action potentials), and has almost no effect on "passive" neurons (neurons whose membrane voltage is not close to the threshold for action potential generation). Such effect can last for 60-90 minutes after a Flowtime tDCS session.
How often to use Flowtime tDCS?
It's recommed to use the headset once a day for 30 minutes. Do not use it more than 40 minutes a day.

References

Enhancement of attention,learning, and memory using tDCS

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Improving language learning by tDCS

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Improving surgical skills by tDCS

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Augmenting creativity by tDCS

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Safety

Safety
The tDCS technology used by Flowtime tDCS headset is safe.  
  • In multiple studies, more than 1,000 subjects participated in more than 33,200 stimulation sessions, and no serious adverse reactions related to tDCS were found.
  • Moreover, for long-term users of tDCS, there are no reports of related adverse reactions.
  • Currently, there are no adverse reports on tDCS in the "MedWatch" database (the US FDA (Food and Drug Administration) safety information and adverse event reporting system). FDA believes that the use of tDCS has no significant risks.
Side Effects
  • Due to increased local blood flow and vasodilation, the skin under the sponge tends to turn red. This is harmless and will subside in 30-60 minutes after use.
  • Some users may experience slight skin itching or tingling. This is safe and can be relieved by pressing the sponge to have a better contact or reduce the current intensity. If there is no relief or it becomes more serious, please stop using the headset.
  • You'll "see" a sudden "flash" during use if you do not follow the instructions (such as suddenly removing the headset during use). This is a momentary optical illusion caused by a sudden increase or decrease of current, which is harmless.
Contraindications
Who should not use Flowtime tDCS?
General conditions
Never use the device:
  • If you have implantable electronic devices/metal implants/other implants in the body, including but not limited to pacemakers or defibrillators, stents, spinal cord stimulators, vagus nerve stimulators, auricle stimulation devices, deep brain stimulation electrodes, cochlear implants, implantable hearing aids.
  • If you are pregnant.
  • If you dye the hair at the roots.    
Pathologies/Disorders/Medications/History
Never use the device:
  • If you have heart disease (or suspected heart disease), epilepsy (or history of epilepsy), mania/bipolar disorder (or history of manic episode/history of bipolar disorder).
  • If you have skull defects or brain injuries, or have a history of craniocerebral surgery.
  • If you have impaired perception.
  • If you have scalp skin diseases such as hereditary dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, eczema, etc.
  • If you have skin allergies, electrode allergies, and hyperalgesia in irritated areas.
  • If you have skin allergies, electrodIf you have acute diseases and malignant tumors.e allergies, and hyperalgesia in irritated areas.
  • If you have physical disorders, mental disorders or neurological diseases.
  • If you are taking drugs that affect central nervous system activity such as nerve antagonists.
  • If you have severe/inertial tinnitus.
Warning
  • The Flowtime tDCS headset should only be used for healthy people (12 years old and older).
  • The Flowtime tDCS headset is designed to only be used on suggested activation sites (DLPFC and motor cortex). Do NOT use the headset in another areas of the body.  
  • Do NOT use the headset more than once a day.
  • Do NOT take off your headset during use.
  • Do NOT use the headset when it's charging.
  • Do NOT use the headset during workouts.
  • Do NOT use the headset while drinking, driving, operating machinery, or any situation where you may be impaired or at risk of injury.
  • Do NOT use the headset in the bathtub or shower.
  • Do NOT use disassembled or modified headset.
  • Please keep the headset out of children's reach.
  • Please place your headset in a dry environment and avoid direct sunlight.
  • Do NOT use the headset with a dry sponge pads.
  • The headset can only be used with original components.

*References

  1. Fregni, F., Boggio, P.S., Nitsche, M., Bermpohl, F., Antal, A., Feredoes, E., Marcolin, M.A., Rigonatti, S.P., Silva, M.T.A., Paulus, W., et al. (2005). Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of prefrontal cortex enhances working memory. Experimental Brain Research 166, 23-30.
  2. Gebodh, N., Esmaeilpour, Z., Adair, D., Schestattsky, P., Fregni, F., and Bikson, M. (2019). Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Among Technologies for Low-Intensity Transcranial Electrical Stimulation: Classification, History, and Terminology. In Practical Guide to Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Principles, Procedures and Applications, H. Knotkova, M.A. Nitsche, M. Bikson, and A.J. Woods, eds. (Cham: Springer International Publishing), pp. 3-43.
  3. Nitsche, M.A., and Paulus, W. (2000). Excitability changes induced in the human motor cortex by weak transcranial direct current stimulation. The Journal of Physiology 527, 633-639.
  4. Nitsche, M.A., and Paulus, W. (2000). Excitability changes induced in the human motor cortex by weak transcranial direct current stimulation. The Journal of Physiology 527, 633-639.
  5. Priori, A. (2003). Brain polarization in humans: a reappraisal of an old tool for prolonged non-invasive modulation of brain excitability. Clinical Neurophysiology 114, 589-595.
  6. Terzuolo, C.A., and Bullock, T.H. (1956). Measurement of imposed voltage gradient adequate to modulate neuronal firing.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 42, 687.
  7. Zaehle, T., Sandmann, P., Thorne, J.D., Jäncke, L., and Herrmann, C.S. (2011). Transcranial direct current stimulation of the prefrontal cortex modulates working memory performance: combined behavioural and electrophysiological evidence. BMC Neurosci 12, 2-2.